The LS based small-block engine is the primary V-8 used in General Motors ' line of rear-wheel-drive cars and trucks. Introduced in Januaryit is a "clean sheet" design with only rod bearings, lifters, and bore spacing in common with the longstanding Chevrolet small-block V-8 that preceded it as the basis for GM small-block V-8s.
The basic LS variations use cast iron blocks, while performance editions are all aluminum with cast iron cylinder liners. Variants of the LT version of the GM small-block have been used since. Most of the credit for this engine family must go to Ed Koerner, GM's Powertrain vice president of engineering operations at the time.
The performance improvements in the LS-family V-8s over the previous classic small-block V-8 family are several. The lower section of the block incorporates deep side skirts, along with 6-bolt cross-bolted main bearing caps. This fully boxes the crankshaft, creating a very strong and rigid structure that has been hot-rodded by enthusiasts to over 1,HP.
Although it is the same compact physical size as the classic small-block V-8, this block can accept a 4-inch stroke as an option in its stock form, due to the cam location being elevated slightly, compared to previous block designs. Also, the cam bearing journals are larger, to allow for a higher cam-lift profile than was previously possible. The stock aluminum heads can provide a high amount of air-flow, which previously could only be found in aftermarket race-performance heads.
The aluminum heads also incorporate steam vents to prevent gas pockets from building up in critical areas, and this is vital in allowing the coolant to manage heat build-up for high-performance applications. Such design features allow for a higher compression ratio with no fear of detonation. The thermostat has been located at a low position, which eliminates the possibility of a gas pocket preventing the thermostat from properly sensing the heat of the coolant.
Previous generations incorporated a coolant passage through the intake manifold to warm the incoming fuel-air mixture in very cold climates. However, modern fuel-injection techniques eliminate fuel atomization concerns under all conditions, so the LS family uses a dry intake manifold.
This removes a common coolant leakage point and also allows the incoming air to remain as cool as possible for better power production. The architecture of the LS series makes for an extremely strong engine block with the aluminum engines being nearly as strong as the iron generation I and II engines.Chinese bl novel translation sites
The LS engine also used coil-near-plug style ignition to replace the distributor setup of all previous small-block based engines.
The cylinder firing order was changed to so that the LS series now corresponds to the firing pattern of other modern V-8 engines for example the Ford Modular V The first of the Generation IIIs, the LS1 was the progenitor of the new architecture design that would transform the entire V-8 line and influence the last of the Big Blocks.
The Generation III 5. The extra horsepower was claimed to come from the intake ram-air effect available in the SS and WS6 models. The LS6 shares its basic block architecture with the GM LS1 enginebut other changes were made to the design such as windows cast into the block between cylinders, improved main web strength and bay to bay breathing, an intake manifold, and MAF-sensor with higher flow, a camshaft with higher lift and more duration, a higher compression ratio of The block is made of cast iron and all use two-valve-per-cylinder iron heads, actuated by pushrods.
The engine, originally designed and manufactured in the United States, was also produced in later versions in Australia. The was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines of the 20th century list, made Ward's yearly 10 Best list multiple times, and is one of the most-produced engines in history. To date, over 25 million have been produced. InGM sold the design to Kaiser-Jeep. The muscle car era had taken hold, and GM no longer felt the need to produce a V6, considered in North America an unusual engine configuration at the time.
The energy crisis a decade later prompted the company to buy the design back from American Motors AMCwho had by that point bought Kaiser-Jeepand the descendants of the early continue to be the most-common GM V6 as it developed into a very durable and reliable design. This engine has the cylinders numbered on the left-hand bank front bank for FWD applications and on the right-hand bank, the number 1 cylinder being the furthest from the flywheel end.
The firing order is The uneven firing pattern was often perceived as roughness, leading a former American Motors executive to describe it as "Rougher than a cob. InBuick redesigned the crankshaft to a "split-pin" configuration to create an "even-firing" version.
Since the cylinders center-lines were no longer centralized over the crank pin bearing journals, the connecting rods were re-designed with the big-ends offset from the piston pin ends by 1.
The engine in this configuration became known to have "off-center bore spacing". The off-center design continued up until the LN3 version of the engine, when the left-hand bank of cylinders was moved forward relative to the right-hand bank.Ogden police twitter
Although the actual bore spacing between cylinders on the same bank remained unchanged at 4. Buick Division, concerned about high manufacturing costs of their innovative aluminum V8, sought to develop a cheaper, cast-iron engine based on the same tooling.
In initial form, it had a bore and stroke of 3. Dubbed the Fireball V6, it became the standard engine in the Buick Special. The bore was increased to 3. It was known as the Dauntless V6 and used a much heavier flywheel than the Buick version to damp vibrations resulting from the engine's firing pattern.
Buick sold the tooling for this engine to Kaiser inas the demand for the engine was waning steadily in an era of V8s and muscle cars. One quick idea was tried by Buick engineers — taking an old Fireball V6 picked up at a junkyard and installing it into a Buick Apollo. However, AMC's cost per unit was deemed as too high.
Instead of buying completed engines, GM made an offer to buy back the tooling and manufacturing line from AMC in April,and began building the engines on August The bore was enlarged to 3.
InGM began to market the as the 3. Starting inthe engine was used in the front-wheel drive Buick Rivierathough still with a longitudinal mounting. Larger valves and better intake and exhaust boosted the power output for A turbocharged version was introduced as the pace car at the Indianapolisand a production turbo arrived in The turbo 3. The LC2 engine has a bore x stroke of 3.Po hold
The turbocharged Buick Regal Grand National GNX was called America's quickest automobile, and the model continues to be collected and appreciated today.This swap I am currently working on involves installing a L32 into a Grand Prix. The Prix currently has the L67 which has already come out and preparations have begun for the L32 install. Before installing, the L32 will be getting the Intense Stage1x cam kit treatment amoung other things.
Before I get too far, let me share with you what I have found out with this engine. It features hp and tq up 20hp over the L67 amoung other things. Physically, the block, heads, and valve covers are identical to the L All bolt-holes, mounting points, and assy serpentine belt drive appears to be identical as well.
The L32 has upgraded, powerdered-metal connecting rods making the rotating assembly both stronger and more reliable. The L32 also has a returnless fuel rail system which means it only has a supply line; no fuel pressure regulator nor return line.
Mazda L engine
These are still high-impedence injectors The L32 still has the same stamped-steel oil pan as the L67, but according to GM Media, for model year this has been changed to a cast-aluminum "structural" oil pan. Presumeably this cast pan will allow for a motor mount to be attached directly to it and might allow for the pan to bolt to the trans bellhousing as well. However the L32's alternator also has a 1-way roller clutch in the pulley that allows the alternator to overrun during tranny shifts.
Presumably this helps extend serp belt life. However one of the map sensors did not have a vacuum line going to it All-importantly, the fly-by-wire throttle body. It measures about 75mm in diameter and there is no TPS sensor, IAC motor, nor any possible way of hooking up a throttle cable I had a GEN-1 northstar throttle body which was very close to the same bolt pattern as the L32 but it does not have an IAC, rather a throttle kicker which will not work with an L67 computer. For this swap we will be using a 4TE HD trans.
Appearantly, the up E's will not work with the earlier computers because of "wiring differences" again, 3rd party info here. I will get some pics of SC and engine internals up by next week as I will be doing the cam upgrade sometime on wednesday.
Seems that the L32's are starting to end up in the hands of drivers that know not the power of the SC - which is great for the Fiero guys! The casting date on the heads was April The block still had " Series II" cast into it. Also, the L67 fuel rail bolts right up to the intake and clears the supercharger just fine.
The stock cam is coming out tomorrow in favor of an Intense Stage1x cam so I will check the lobe lift on the stock cam to see if it matches the Series II unit.The fourth-generation Camaro experienced a difficult period in automotive manufacturing.
As the evolution of power plants improved dramatically. The brass at GM were smart enough to know that the sport coupe market would eventually return, and the Camaro needed to be prepared to meet that call.
In this installment highlighting the Camaro engines we take a look at the engines from the fourth generation of the Camaro line. Reverse cooling that began at the cylinder heads then went to the engine block was the major change in the Gen II small-block engines. Photo from wikipedia. The fourth-generation Camaro started with a couple of new engine platforms in Using the 3.
The LT1 was a completely new small-block platform for GM, with the familiar 5. The biggest change in this engine platform was the cooling system, which cooled the cylinder heads, and then the block before returning to the radiator.Beach dog names female
LT1 engines with cast-iron heads were also available for the B-body Caprice, and D-body Fleetwood autos. The Y-body Corvettes offered the LT1 with four-bolt main caps, which make those blocks a great replacement block. The Camaro launched the fourth generation of the nameplate. The PCM control would come a year later. Because of the batch-fire injection, the Camaro LT1s have a unique intake-manifold casting, due to their fuel rails.
All-in-all, the LT1 introduction into the fourth-generation Camaro meant a different platform, but an improvement over the previous engine series. The Camaro Z28 was selected as the Indianapolis pace car. The six-cylinder L32 remained the base engine for the entry level Camaro, but the LT1 V8 was modified slightly.
Forthe Camaro LT1 received the 4L60E transmission, which was the electronically controlled version of the R4. The EPROM chips were soldered to the computer board in an effort to prevent their removal, and a three-wire heated O2 sensor replaced the previous single wire sensors.
Guided by EPA standards, the Camaro proved to be more efficient, yet it still lacked the eye-popping power that many personal coupe buyers were looking for. Despite the market woes, the Camaro soldiered on. Returning with the same lineup forthe V6 got a boost mid-year, when the Buick series II engine found their way into California base models. The California Camaro also benefited from dual catalytic converters for an added 10 horsepower gain. For the first time, California emission standards led to more horsepower.
The Camaro found a horsepower increase with dual catalytic converters. Photo from gm. After the earlier Optispark distributor experienced problems due to moisture and condensation from heat, the vented Optispark distributors were introduced to help remove moisture. Earlier distributors can be modified with these vacuum vents to help with durability.
The L36 V6 engine became the base engine in and continued through the end of the fourth generation in Photo from www. All car manufacturers complied with the new OBD-II standards, which helped auto mechanics and engine tuners alike.Based on the latest achievements in combustion technology, it is designed for efficient and easy maintenance in combination with long maintenance-free operating periods. The engine is fully equipped with all essential ancillaries and a thoroughly planned interface to external systems.
Low fuel oil consumption over a wide load range. Utmost power-to-weight and power-to-space rations in combination with a great flexibility in engine support arrangements allows optimised rigid or flexible installation for a wide range of vessel applications.
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Definitions and notes. The Voyager is deployed in the Irish Sea. Pelagic trawlers are huge vessels built for deep sea fishing, with facilities for keeping the catch fresh over prolonged periods at sea. The hull is designed to ensure safety, and to give good fuel efficiency and high speed. Read more. The Quantus is a modern trawler designed and built for efficient fishing. The vessel incorporates a number of innovative ideas, including a new hull form designed to combine optimum steaming and towing characteristics with fuel efficiency.
Arctia Offshore. Press releases. Opening existing Close existing Click to select:. Opening all Going Offshore Brazil The emerald-green waters of the Atlantic Ocean are hiding huge oil reserves off the coast of Brazil. Transporting this oil to refineries requires pipelines laid on the seabed. Close existing Most popular tags Click to select:. Related services. Privacy Notice. Cookie Notice.All of these engines are valve cam-in-block or overhead valve enginesexcept for the LQ1 ; which uses 24 valves driven by dual overhead cams.
These engines vary in displacement between 2. Production of these engines began in and ended in in the U. This engine family was the basis for the GM High Value engine family. These engines have also been referred to as the X engines due to their first usage in the X-body cars.
This engine is not related to the GMC V6 engine that was designed for commercial vehicle usage. This "clean sheet" design was introduced in and versions were produced through Two different blocks with minor differences were developed:.
Like the rest of the Generation I engines, they were updated in with larger main journals for durability, along with multi-point fuel injection or E2SE carb and OBD I. Production of the Generation I transverse engines ended in The 2. It was a transverse version produced from through for the A-body and X-body cars. The standard "X-code" engine for this line, it used a two-barrel carburetor.
Introduced inthe 2. The L44 was produced from toreplacing the LH7. It was the first transverse 2. The LB6 engine was introduced in to replace the original LE2. The LG6 "D-code" was produced from to in both transverse and longitudinal applications. It used throttle-body fuel injection and iron heads. The longitudinal versions had minor differences from the transverse engines on which they were based.
Like the rest of the family, larger journals appeared inalong with multiport fuel injection for the F-body LB8 version. TBI was added for the truck version in Production of the 2. GM's performance-parts division continued production of a related crate engine after The longitudinal LC1 was produced from to It was a 2-barrel High Output "1-code" version for the F-body cars.
It was replaced by the LB8 for The longitudinal LR2 was a truck version "B-code" produced from to The longitudinal LL1 was a high-output version of the LC1 produced in and It was used in the — Pontiac Firebird.
The carbureted LL2 "R-code" was produced from to Another LL2 "R-code" with throttle-body fuel injection was produced from to It used multiport fuel injection and was made for longitudinal mounting.
The LH0 as used in the rear-wheel drive applications differed significantly from that used in front-wheel drive applications. The latter retained the generation-I architecture block and heads. The power rating of the 3. The F-body cars used the Generation I architecture, with iron heads, and without splayed valves.The Mazda L -series is a mid-sized inline 4-cylinder gasoline engine designed by Mazda as part of their MZR familyranging in displacement from 1.
Introduced init is the evolution of the cast-iron block F-engine. The L -series is used by Ford as their 1. The L-engine uses a chain-driven DOHCvalve valvetrain with an all-aluminum block construction and cast-iron cylinder liners. Other features include fracture-split forged powder metal connecting rods and a one-piece cast crankshaft. Direct-injection is available on the 2. Ford plans to use the L-engine well into the future for their EcoBoost and Duratec 4-cylinder generations.
InMazda ceased to develop the L-engine and replaced it with the SkyActiv-G engine - an extensively revised evolution of the Mazda L-engine.
At this time, Ford will be the only manufacturer still using the Mazda L-engine design. The 1. This appeared in the Mondeo in and is today available on the 2. The SCi engine is paired with a specially designed six-speed manual transmission. European 1. Duratec FFV is a flex fuel version of the 1. The 2. Changes to the engine include switching from a cast aluminum to a reinforced plastic intake manifold and from Sequential multi-port fuel injection to gasoline direct injection.
These features, along with an increased compression ratio of This version is referred to as the "Duratec The plastic intake manifold on early versions of the 1. The manifold has swirlplates mounted on a square shaft at the aperture where it mounts to the cylinder head.
Early four-cylinder Duratec engines can be ruined when the swirlplates break off and enter a cylinder.
Buick V6 engine
Most cases are of single swirlplates but also the shaft can wear and break. Early signs of this fault are evidenced by a ticking noise emanating from the front of the engine. This can occur as early as 25K miles, with failure typically occurring after about 90, miles.
A turbocharged Ford EcoBoost version was introduced in Three versions of the 23EW have been produced. There are two versions of the 23NS with slight differences:. In some Eastern and Middle Eastern models, the Mazda6 had a tuned version of the 2.
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